Frequently Asked Questions

Get answers to your questions! - The big picture

a. What is the legal structure behind is owned 100% by Danish domiciled entity Neptoon ApS. Despite its danish URL it’s an international platform for private asset management. Or private digital asset management supported by professionals. Neptoon ApS is not monitored by the local FSA authorities amid our objectively and model driven solutions framwork.

Neptoon does NOT manage peoples money, so we don’t receive a cent from investors, except for a small monthly invoiced fee for access to the platform and its vast amount of solutions and professional insight. Neptoon is a membership-based and financed product allowing Users or members to take advantage of the software.  It is a SaaS product. Investors money and portfolio stay where its is already. So investor also keeps her current custody and trading solutions in the bank, mobile or online as on Saxo Bank or Nordnet Bank in the Nordics.

b. What is - is it a bank??

No. Neptoon is a digital and membership-financed solution that solves private investor’s biggest challenge in understanding and managing their current and future portfolio wealth and future cashflows. Either in (savings) or out (dissavings, retirement) of the initial portfolio wealth. Essentially making Neptoon a lifecycle savings-consumption vehicle. hosts the financial engine “Neptoon Solutions” which is an advanced successor to “Ubanking Solutions”. Like other products in the Neptoon ApS family, is a digital platform addressing and facilitating financial investments for private investors. So, is a forward-looking tool and not a database of your current investments. Investor’s portfolio always sits in his og her own custody and bank

c. What is the main problem today and Neptoon's role??

Neptoon solves the primary challenge for private investor’s management of wealth. For most private investors, perhaps 98%, it is hard to avoid assistance from expensive local bank advice. This construction, or institution, is despite fierce criticism from academia throughout decades, still more than alive. The problem of course is that banks charge enormously high fees, and even worse has so large conflict of interest that they offer even very bad product to clients as long as it offers the highest fees to banks. On top of this, the invoice structure is not transparent as money fess are transferred from a bank account that is linked to the “Investment Funds” and not to investor. Particularly worrying is the invoice structure on socalled Private Banking arrangements, where another layer of costs are added and also often a very complex return-dependent extra cost. Normally banks charge around 2-2,5% p.a. and even more for Private Banking.

Do investors know the accumulating impact over time of there heavy cost-related return reductions? No, it is shown year by  year and as such the accumulated effect is hidden. Purposely. But even IF investors knew that a 2,5% TER cost would shave of 50% of the total EUR wealth in 30 years, they would probably still accept the advice. Why? Because most investors are uncomfortable in maneuvering around the financial landscape. With lack of interest, afraid of making mistakes and perhaps even a funny believe in the crystalball foresight of the bank adviser, investor willingly accepts the arrangement. is built to solve exactly these fundamental challenges and irrationalities by offering a conflict of interest-free platform with a fully guided path to the optimal portfolio. Followed by regular notifications with suggested changes. No transfer of money to Maximum risk on Neptoon is one month of membership, max EUR10-12. Investor can at any time unsubscribe with effect immediately.

d. Why don't I need my current portfolio?

Like for professional asset managers in banks, portfolio history and current construction, is only to a little extent critical for the forward-looking new portfolio. At any time investors current view of future financial developments are governing the portfolio. Not history. In some cases taxes and trading costs can obstruct this “forward-loooking only” approach. In the system however trading costs are assumed to be 0%, and effective taxes are symmetric. You can not speculate in tax dynamics.

Consider as a platform on top of your current portfolio/custody that 1) guides the optimal path towards highest risk adjusted return at lowest costs and 2) Provides you with tools to evaluate what risk to take and where to take it. Including selection of mutual funds, index funds and ETF’s.

You can however analyse your current portfolio in Neptoon, but as suggested above It will not affect the optimal new solution.

e. Who has built Neptoon Solutions?

The Neptoon core modelling framework is technical as it is founded on models in statistics, mathematics and economics. However, most complicated is the User accessibility and flexibility optionality. Building this requires not only PhD technical involvement, but also very experienced professional people from financial markets. Neptoon is built using various consultants, albeit driven by MSc in Economics and Finance, author and CEO Thomas Peter Clausen.

f. What is so special or unique by

The User-simple and User-driven investment and portfolio flow with professionally guided assistance from a robot. Neptoon essentially offers portfolio management software, yet with a professional algorithm to support User in decision making. Bank’s have this advantage versus private investors, that they have the tools and setup to produce credible, albeit expensive, solutions to clients. With investor gets her own easy-to system to come up with a desired solution. At no costs User can retrieve 4 professional ETF solutions that match User’s risk appetite. With the paid version User can navigate in a large section of various funds from both the ETF universe and Mutual Fund universe. All screened to User’s country origin.   

g. What do I gain in money over time?

In order to capture the almost 30% of expected equity returns banks get, investors need a set of transparent, easily understood and manageable tools. Tools, today only in the hands of professional bankers. Ultimately, Neptoon reduces the difference between professional and private investors to a point, where practically only luck matters for who is the best. E.g. guessing on tomorrows market return. Below is a diagram showing on a 4o year Pension horizont the brutal bank cut of potential investor wealth. The upper green wealth is the clean market return of 6% p.a. The Neptoon return is 6% reduced by 0,25% p.a. for both ETF costs and Neptoon platform costs. Last the banks with 2% TER.  


h. Why does banks not offer this already?

Because banks have no commercial interest in making public their investment tools. Not to mention a product universe where investors can choose among cheapest products.

i. Why has this not been made before?

Because it can only be implemented with a high-level mix of know-how, technology and financial products.

Investment solutions

a. What are the offered investment products?

Neptoon does not offer products per se, rather digital investment solutions. Hence products are ultimately wrapped into a mailed PDF file, containing all details for User’s optimal and perhaps personalized choice. Including specific trading-ticket details. The product is a free or paid membership that allows User to access to varying degree expert tools as personal choice of ETF or Mutual Funds. The free access or trial allow, user to retrieve information on 4 Neptoon in-build solutions and selected financial ETF funds.  

b. Is there anything special about the solutions. Derivatives and or leverage?

All Neptoon in-build standardized solutions assumes long-only 100% wealth with upfront money and 0 recurrent savings/dissavings. However, the system handles both leveraged as well as unleveraged portfolios based on the upfront amount. Even 0-upfront amount certificates can be used, though at LIBOR +/- 1.5% borrow lend cost.

c. What is the “ standard solutions” concept? dynamically builds 4 global fund portfolios. Each optimal and defined by a User risk-appetite from 1-4. These solutions can be readily downloaded or be modified. For free.

d. What is the “Neptoon Solutions User-driven solutions” concept?

Neptoon Solutions offers an intuitive dashboard for portfolio management. When User creates a smart portfolio the robot assists to maximize output. All standard solutions can be reached in the dashboard by simply switching between them on the fly.

e. How does Neptoon. Solutions come up with these solutions?

Neptoon Solutions is calibrated on a multi-asset class model portfolio of Funds. See the “Advanced How it Works”

f. Which financial instruments can I expect in the solutions?

Standard solutions are created from a model portfolio Fund structure of global asset classes linked to global economies. If User decides to modify either of the pre-defined 4 portfolios, then “single stocks” can be included. From the final allocation User can apply other mimicking return, risk and cost products and certificates. ETF’s as well as both active and passive Mutual Funds.

g. Can I avoid bonds?

Yes, by switching off “bonds”. Portfolio will recalibrate and optimize to cash based on 0% bond exposure. So User needs to re-allocate cash position if desired.

h. Can I include single stocks like Apple Inc?

Yes. by switching on “single stocks”. User can select number of companies (stocks) for each asset class country, and also type in expectations of stock individual returns. By selecting single stocks for an equity asset class eg. Denmark, the selected weight from default is chosen. That is, if danish equity is 20% on fund level then 20% will be assigned to the new single stock sub portfolio. Expected return on the sub portfolio is similar to the fund. So beta is assumed to be one in the sub portfolio. Risk will change due to diversification.

i. Is there currency risk in solutions?

Yes, it’s unavoidable in a global portfolio. User can however select to some extent currency hedged equity funds like the S&P500 MSCI WORLD HEDGED (EUR) for a Europe based investor.  

j. How is expected currency return calculated?

Equilibrium inflations differentials between base currency and home country. These are typically central bank long-term guidelines.

k. Is Neptoon Solutions only for new portfolios or can I analyze my current portfolio?


l. What about taxes - are they accounted for??

Professionals, including Neptoon Solutions, build investment solutions on a gross tax basis (but net cost). The assumption is it that a tax rate does not change the composition in portfolios. However, since Neptoon is also a future cashflow system, User can select whether to have output variables in gross or net terms. User further has to choose investment from 3 possible types being, Pension, Corporate or Household. From this User must input his or her relevant tax rates, which together will shape an effective tax rate that will be deducted from net return (gross minus costs).  

Taxes are extremely difficult to implement as it requires many assumptions both inside funds and outside, i.e. User’s personal tax profile. Also the calculation itself is difficult as User’s tax payment and tax rate often are dependent on future unknown scenarios of wealth. 

So. the effective rate is the best option we got. Every year the net return is reduced by a tax amount that is assumed to be paid from the asset value, e.g. fund, itself.


m. Does Neptoon Solutions change profiles?

Neptoon Solutions portfolios change according to short-term and long-term dynamics of risk and return. The needle in the compass is to maximize the chance of getting over time the best risk-adjusted return. Whilst long-term dynamics are founded in objective assumptions from BlackRock Inc., ECB, and IMF, short-term dynamics are founded in risk-on/risk-off tactics.

n. Is Neptoon Solutions for Pensions also?

Yes. Neptoon Solutions is a universal tool across savings schemes. Both savings and dissavings. Any tax related impact on expected returns in the system can be changed by User in the dashboard.

o. Can Neptoon Solutions handle dissavings eg. "FIRE" profiles?

Yes. The system allows for negative monthly savings. That is an initial portfolio value of DKK 1mill. can be “consumed” all the way to 0 by adjusting the monthly outflow until expexted end value reaches approx. DKK 0.

How about "FIRE" in Neptoon?

User can easily build savings profiles based on optimal portfolios. User can also connect a disavings profile and hence achieve a life-horizon savings and consumption pattern.

What exactly are the Investment Types?
  1. Pension
  2. Corporate
  3. Household

These 3 are only neccesary  if User wants net-tax results in the system. So they are essentially tax classifications of the portfolio or funds. 1. Pension is a tax rate “inside” the Pension pool. 2) Corporate is the simply the Corporate tax rate. The implied tax rate distinguishing above the line from below the line. 3. Household rate is the capital tax rate on already taxed mone, e.g from salary. Also its added on top of Corporate and Pension.


Investment type: Pension

Tax rate pension: 15,3%

Tax rate household (capital): 40%

Effective rate: 1-(1-0,153)*(1-0,4)=49,18% 

The Dashboard

a. What is actually the Dashboard?

The Dashboard is User’s Portfolio Management system. A cockpit to fly the plane (portfolio) with an optional in-build autopilot.

b. How do I start?

The Dashboard is created so that User can start selecting a system optimal solution based on User’s risk-appetite. From “Neptoon Safe” (low risk) to “Neptoon Super Opportune” (very high risk). From this basis User can make modifications.

c. Is it difficult to use the Dashboard?

No, a Robot guides in moving User portfolio towards a smart solution.

d. Can I remove "Bonds"?

Yes, the Dashboardl has a general on/off function. The Robot then builds a new optimal portfolio given deactivated bond risk. Bond exposure goes to cash exposure.

e. Why can I not modify "Bonds" weights like Equity weights?

This is one place where had to make a restriction or limitation on User maneuverability. 99% of Users have no (strong) conviction on relative pricing between bonds or interest rates. But the total weight of bonds can be modified by modifying the globa equity weight. The 3 bond asset classes are scaled according to an optimal rule in the system.

f. Can I include single stocks?

Yes. You can even add own expectations of single stock returns. 

g. What is that “Gross equity exposure”?

If gross exposure is 100% the portfolio is a “normal” portfolio where all weights are positive and sum to 100%. When gross exposure on equity is higher than 100% we call “long equity exposure”, and if gross equity exposure is less than 0, we call it “short equity exposure”. The “gross” means that intra equity classes we can have maybe -200% and +500%. In this case gross is 300%.

h. How can I see it in the Dashboard?

It’s a measure of (un)leverage versus Cash. So, 130% means a portfolio is created with e.g. 100 upfront investment and another 30 from borrowing. “Cash” will in this case show -30% or -30 (in money). With say 70% as gross exposure a portfolio is created with -70 in equities and 70 in cash.

i. How can I finance my long equity exposure (>100%)?

Either by borrowing funds in the money market or by entering into certificates or CFD’s.

j. How can I invest my short (<0%) equity exposure?

Either by investing proceeds in money market (short selling) or entering short CFD.

k. Can ETF’s be used for long/short

Yes, in CFD.

l. Is money market borrowing cost and invest cost included in returns?

Yes, net returns, and via costs.

m. What if I but leveraged certificates with margin is this chance of being closed down included in expected return?

We call this “Ruin” probability. No, with margin products expected return is somewhat overestimated in the Dashboard. Expected return is a horizon average of stochastic outcomes of exponentialized logreturns, that might have been very negative during horizon path.

n. Can I change actual tradeable Funds in the Investment Universe?

No, not directly in the Dashboard. But you can easily use the Dashboard “as if” you used other Funds. This works via the added excess return function, where you can subtract or add the cost difference between the Funds.

o. Can I buy licence to the system and use own assumptions and Funds?


p. I really would like to have my own investment universe as platform for my portfolio. What can I do?

Build your own system or book session on See also the VIP room.

q. Can I change assumptions of asset class or stock risk?

No. Risk assumptions are fixed in the system to simplify your flexibility. We can do it for you manually on or in the VIP Lounge.

r. I have fixed costs I want to include. Is that possible?

Yes. But you need to do it indirectly via the “Market return” or “Excess return” in the “Modify global equity” or “Modify local equity”.

s. What is Neptoon GRI?

It is a key figure that states User’s probability of reaching a certain minimum amount of wealth in the future given savings plan. So, e.g. GRI=40% could mean 40% chance of reaching minimum EUR 100.000 in 2 years.

t. How do I rebalance weights?

The system offers 4 pre-designed model portfolios that are accessible even for free. In the Dashboard you can switch between them to easily see the difference in weights, return, risk and costs. All 4 models have weights according to both a strategic long-run profile and a tactical short-run profile. You simply use these weights at any time you enter the system andf trade accordingly in your personal trading system.  Please also refer to the Academy for support.


a. What is the Academy? Academy is an educational forum with video and Excel tutorials within various topics including tutorials on the site tools itself. Some are for free other have a small charge.

b. How does it work?

It is e-commerce. So, all Users can download product according to the restrictions outligned in Terms &#038; Conditions.

c. Is there material supporting Neptoon calculations and key figures?


d. Can you make these videos or Excel on request?

Please contact us. If the idea is sellable to others, we do it for free. Otherwise we charge.

e. Do I own the items I download?

Yes, but you cannot distribute to others than family. See Terms of Conditions.


a. What is a membership? has 3 types of entries into the professionally build investment portfolios. All 3 differentiated by functional tools accessibility as e-mail, reports and funds database.  

b. What is the price? offers a free version with limited access, a full-access and partial-access membership around EUR 10-20/month.  

c. What if I just want a professional and personal one-time solution?

All Users can unsubscribe just after one creation and in principled come back in 6 months and do it again. Nordic investors, however can also use Neptoon Invest, or the VIP Lounge.

d. What is the advantage of keep rolling the membership?

The rolling membership is important to maintain an optimal portfolio and insight into the portfolio. User becomes a “Private Neptoon Client”. It means that User receives a notification, when Neptoon makes changes in the model portfolios including Funds. Changes based on short-term risk-appetite on/off dynamics and long-term structural risk-premia dynamics. Of course also means User has access to the Dashboard 24/7 to evaluate or re-evaluate the portfolio composition. It could be in case of a very bearish market environment, where User wants to reduce risk. In this case User can easily switch between the risk profiles.

e. How do I pay?

On a rolling monthly forward basis.

f. How can I unsubscribe?

Go to unsubscribe in membership page.

g. Do I have free access to the Academy with membership?

No. The Academy is an independent e-commerce window.

h. Can others use my login details?

No. It’s forbidden. See Term of Conditions.

Trading and support

a. What happens when the portfolio is created?

Members can then go to “Trade View” and see details. After that sent an E-mail with all details.

b. Can I trade these products myself?

All instruments are simple and can be traded on most online platforms. We use Saxo Bank, Otherwise contact your bank.

c. What if I need further help with first-time implementation?

You can always book digital meeting in the VIP Lounge or if you are Nordic on

d. I am an US citizen can I buy the UCITS funds?

Yes. Always through brokers. But in many cases without.

e. I am US citizen are there any US domiciled funds I can use?

See the “Academy”.

f. How does the long/short work. I am leveraged with 130% i9n gross exposure?

It means you need to finance 30% of your portfolio size.

g. What’s assumed as interest rate on financing in long (>100%) positions?

Cash rate + High Yield spread in local currency

h. How does short work. I have 80% gross exposure?

It means you physically short sell (shorting) 20%. Cash is reinvested at cash rate in local currency.

i. Can I use certificates instead of money?

Yes. But you have to find the certificates yourselves within the regions. Type 0 in portfolio size and use the allocation weights as money proxies into your certificate.

j. How do I rebalance when I receive a Notification?

You first go to and select a Neptoon solution or customize yourself. Sent the mail and compare the new portfolio with your existing LIVE portfolio. Rebalance by trading the differences. Help can be found in the Academy, VIP Lounge or

k. Are the key figures dependent on rebalancing?

When Neptoon changes the 4 investment solutions, it is not a rebalancing. It is a recalibration to a new tactic or strategy. The 4 solutions are fixed weight benchmarks, that User is herself responsible for rebalancing to on a regularly basis. As Users “buy” the portfolios different days Neptoon cannot sent out when a rebalancing must take place. Neptoon can only recalibrate, and with recalibration of course User also get the compositions right again.

l. So, is rebalancing tricky?

No. In practice recalibration of Neptoon portfolios occur so frequently, that any drift in weights between Equity and Bonds or countries, is irrelevant.

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